A pilot study of virtual cases in law education

Uno GH Fors [1] Åsa Skoglund [2]

Cite as: Fors U.G.H., & Skoglund A., "A pilot study of virtual cases in law education", European Journal of Law and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2013.

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the possibility to create and use virtual law cases/virtual clients for training Contract Law for undergraduate students. The study also investigated the attitudes of the learners of using such cases.

A previously wide-spread case system for healthcare education, Web-SP, was adapted to be used for legal cases. One case was developed by a senior legal expert and teacher, which was subsequently used by 52 students in a course on contract law during a seminar. A questionnaire was used to gather students' opinions on the use of the virtual cases.

Most students were positive to the use of virtual law cases to practice their legal decision making. Almost all learners believed that the virtual cases were realistic and engaging and that they also found the interactive Web-SP cases to be good for their learning.

Future studies need to look into concrete learning outcomes as well as the potential of using virtual law cases for exams. [3]

1. Introduction

1.1 Law education in Scandinavia

Traditional education in law in Scandinavia consists of lectures and seminars, focused on resolving issues of law that gives a legal perspective. This investigative approach usually works fine and is mostly appreciated by the students. However, real-life encounters with legal clients are unusual in most law schools today. One reason that education in law often consists of lectures and seminars addressing legal text analysis of laws/ regulations and case law is probably likely dependent on the fact that the teacher is often there for his/her expertise in the area rather than teaching qualifications and because of the fact that students cannot ask question or interrupt in a real court trial.

An important cornerstone in the Swedish legal system is the doctrine of the hierarchy of legal sources [Carlson 2012], while it provides an order of precedence for the different legal sources. The sources in the Swedish legal system have traditionally been seen as The Constitution; Legislation; Legislative preparatory works; Case law; General principles of law; Custom and usage; and Legal scholarship.

Law studies in Sweden are therefore largely focused towards the right investigative perspective, where key components are legal text analysis of laws and regulations, studies of preparatory work and case law. Sometimes this is supplemented by commercial practice and usages. Finally, legal scholarship is also studied [Bogdan et al 2000]. However, in contrast to for example many law schools in North America, practical case-based learning is not in focus in most law schools in Scandinavia. Hence, it is very rare that the students get practical experience such as reading authentic agreements/contracts or meet real legal clients during their basic studies. Further on, seminars at law schools are often studies of case law, focusing on the courts judgments rather than studying real contracts and agreements that led to the conflict between the parties.

1.2 Virtual cases for learning

Virtual cases (VCs) have been used in healthcare education for a rather long period of time and are regarded as an important educational tool with a variety of implementation possibilities [Bergin and Fors 2003, Botezatu et al 2010a, Cook and Triola 2009]. In healthcare education, VCs are often called Virtual patients (VPs), and are computer based representations of real patient encounters used for learning and training [Ellaway et al 2008]. Almost all virtual patient systems have a number of common features, including patient interview, physical examination, lab/imaging tests, as well as diagnosis and treatment suggestions [Bergin and Fors, 2003]. Most VC systems also provide feedback to the student regarding his/her case management and clinical/critical reasoning process as well as tracking all interactions between the student and the virtual person, which can be used for e.g. discussions with the students regarding different options in the case encounter [Botezatu et al 2010a].

The intention of most VC systems is not to take away training with real persons during practical training or similar, but to prepare students for such rotations in a safe and flexible, but still very realistic, environment. Advantages mentioned for VCs include that such systems may be used in the home, at campus, individually or in small groups, and regardless of time and space, but still leading to improved learning and understanding [Botezatu et al 2010a, 2010b].

Most implementations of VCs focus on training of Critical reasoning and/or problem solving [Cook and Triola, 2009], but they are also used for assessment of such abilities [Botezatu et al 2010b, Forsberg et al 2011]. A special feature of VCs are that they most often focuses on the encounter between a professional and a customer, client, patient or similar, where the dialogue between the professional is a crucial part and in which the virtual person in the system not only answers questions asked by the user, but also reacts emotionally and/or physically [Bergin and Fors 2003, Courteille 2008].

Recently, VCs have also been applied with good results in other domains like teacher training, special needs education and business education, where also practical problem solving and critical reasoning needs to be trained as well as encounters between professionals and other persons [Allodi et al 2012].

One area where the encounter between a professional and a client also is crucial, and where problem solving can be very complex, is the field of law. For example, in Contract and Commercial Law education students need to learn how to approach a case, ask the most important questions to the appropriate persons, and to critically analyze those answers. Thereafter they need to decide on which legal and other documents (such as, but not limited to, contracts) that need to be obtained, analyze the documents, optimize the efforts in terms of time and costs; and then arrive at a correct decision on of what legal grounds the actual problem is based on. In summary, the students need to learn how to interpret the intention of the parties, which juridical laws that are applicable and finally to come to a decision on what the next step should be (like: is a contract concluded?; have the party given notice?; are there remedies for breach of contract?; etc. and how should the parties, based on above, try to solve their legal problem?).

1.3 Technology enhanced learning in law education

As mentioned above, traditionally, few law schools in Scandinavia have been using technology enhanced learning like interactive computer-based cases or similar methods. Even practical web-based cases are scarcely used. However, recently a number of international law schools have been starting to explore and introduce tablets [Bainbridge et al 2013], movies [Denoncourt 2013] or Web-based multimedia materials [Albon 2013] to enhance law education. Also some of the well-known Harvard Business cases (which can be applicable to law studies) are today available as multimedia cases [DeLacey & Leonard 2002]. There are also reports on virtual law firms to be used in legal education [Gould et al 2008] and Role-playing games [Boyne2012]. However, there is still a lack of reports on the use of virtual law clients and similar learning methods with the possibility to encounter and discuss with the simulated client, as applied in for example Virtual patients for healthcare education.

When practicing law as a lawyer you need the skills to identify the legal problems from an unstructured narrative of a client that have very limited legal knowledge. Thus, also interviewing skills of clients and experts is of importance, as is how to choose which questions to ask, if follow up questions are needed, and how to interpret the answers. Additionally, you also need to know which specific documents that are needed in a certain case, keeping in mind that both time and resources are limited in most situations. In other words, you need the knowledge of finding a solution to the legal problem in a contract or by gap filling from applicable law. Moreover you need to have the ability to read and interpret laws and regulations and from that identify the criteria of a rule and specify the interpretation of it. Finally a lawyer needs to have the ability to consider how the legal problem should be solved subsequent to the conclusions of the above.

Innovative learning tools seem to have a potential to increase students' engagement and learning. For example Denoncourt [2013] mention film clips to increase engagement and Boyne [2012] indicates that role playing simulation also enhance students engagement as well as their abilities to investigate cases, communicate with clients and negotiate. Therefore, it seems plausible that realistic and engaging virtual law cases, like in healthcare education, could play a role in law education.

1.4 Aims of the study

This study investigates the possibility to use Virtual law clients for training in Contract Law and the attitudes of the learners of using such cases.

The aims of this study were thus:

  • To investigate the possibility to create realistic and engaging cases in law education
  • To study the possibility to use already existing (medical) virtual case systems for creating law cases
  • To assess learners attitudes of this type of cases in law education

2. Methods

2.1 Adapting a medical VC system to law

The law cases in this study were developed using the virtual case system Web-SP, which originally has been developed for healthcare education and offering possibilities to interview the client, perform physical examinations, order lab and imaging tests, plus suggest proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus it was needed to adapt the system to the field of law, which was done through replacing medical terms (like illness history") to juridical terms (like dialogue) and deleting specific medical features like physical examinations etc. It was a somewhat time-consuming process since the "translation" from medicine to law needed to be done by programmers and database managers. This process took about two weeks of time, if converted to full time, and resulted in a case template dedicated to law education.

However, some minor issues were more or less impossible to solve like that all cases are introduced by indicating the age of the case (relevant in medicine, but not in law). Other remaining issues were related to Web-SP's focus on medical labs and imaging tests, but that could also be used for ordering legal documents, even if not optimal.

2.2 Development of cases

When the adaptation of Web-SP into law had been performed, the case creating process started with training of the law teacher in how to create cases in Web-SP and then to start to develop the first case. All cases were based on real legal cases from The Supreme Court in Sweden but were put in as anonymous copies with some details altered to avoid identification of the real cases.

In Web-SP, learners are supposed to browse through the case and freely choose what to ask the client or other persons about, which documents and other information to order as well as to in the end come up with both which actual section of a law that were applicable in the case, and what the person that sought contact with the legal advisor/lawyer should do as the next step. All interactions are logged in the system, available to both teachers and learners after the session, as well as used for automatic individual feed-back by the system on the investigative strategy used.

By using virtual law cases, the students can practice their skills to more like the real world; identify the legal problems in an unstructured narrative of a client that have no legal knowledge. They also may get knowledge required to find a solution to the legal problem in an applicable law/section of law or in the contract. Further on, learners can practice their ability to read and interpret different contracts terms, laws and regulations and from that identify the criteria of a rule and specify the interpretation of it. Finally the students also practice on their ability to consider how the legal problem should be solved subsequent to the conclusions of the above.

The virtual case used in the study started up with a brief introduction to the case, see Figure 1. Then the learner is supposed to start to investigate the case by for example asking questions to the client or his colleagues. This is done by selecting among the hundreds of available questions from the sub-menus, click on that question, and then in real-time receive a reply in the form of a still image and text (see Figure 2), or by a video clip. The vast amount of available questions means that the user cannot click on everything, and is forced to reflect on which questions that are most important and focus on relevant follow-up questions etc. The users may also order any of several legal and other documents (see Figure 3) and in the end, propose a decision and justification of that.

Figure 1 - the introduction to one of the cases. (Translated from Swedish)

Figure 2 - the dialogue section where the user can ask questions to the virtual person by choosing from the many existing ones to the left, and then receives the answer as a text and an image as above. (Translated from Swedish)

Figure 3 - an example of legal documents that may be ordered. Here it is a protocol from the inspection of the house constructed is ordered by the user. (Translated from Swedish).

2.3 The case in this study

The case used in this course was originating from the Swedish Supreme Court (NJA 2007 s 962). This case concerns the question if standard contractual terms and conditions (with claims arising from an inspection before the conveyance of a property by purchase, with a time-bar, and requires the client to take action no later than two years after the performance of the activity/service), is considered to be unfair to the client. The case also deals with the problem of adding contract terms, supplied by one party after the conclusion of the contract.

In this virtual case, the students had to identify the legal problems by asking questions to a colleague, reading correspondence between the parties, reading the General Terms and Conditions of the service provider. They had also to find a solution to the legal problem in an applicable law/section of law and in the contract and to justify their answers.

By doing this, the students were supposed to practice on their ability to read and interpret a section of law based on the information from the virtual colleague and the other resources found in the virtual case system.

Finally, running the interactive case, the students also could practice on their ability to consider how the legal problem should be solved subsequent to the conclusions of the above. In the end their result was compared with the real case and there was a web-address to read the complete real case. This information was only made available after completion of the case.

2.4 Implementation of the virtual case in the course

The objectives of the actual course, "Civil and Commercial Law" 4 ECTS, aims to provide students with basic knowledge of law in general, and those related to construction in particular. Above all, various laws and the general terms and conditions associated with construction activities were learning objectives. The course content includes general law, civil law, Real Estate law and Construction law. The emphasis was placed on contract law, property law, real estate law and construction law.

The course consisted of three sections, each comprising 12 hours of teaching time. The different sections included primarily contract law, property law, real estate law and construction law. The course started with four lectures and ended with workshops, where students had the opportunity to discuss one or more legal problems. Issues raised at the seminars were considered as part of the course, and it was assumed that students were familiar with these on the exams. One of the seminars was devoted to work with the virtual case in Web-SP, and to discuss the case with peers and teachers at the seminar.

There were 52 students attending the course and the course is part of the Construction engineer program at Linköping University, Sweden.

2.5 Instructions to students

The students were asked to work with the virtual case as individuals and were also told that "By working with the Virtual Law cases you will as a student be given the opportunity to practice how to gather information, analyze and suggest solutions concerning legal issues. The information you receive is dealing with your business colleague's problems and your mission is to identify the legal problem and give your solution to the problem.
In this system, you will meet a virtual colleague that you should treat as a "real" colleague. Nothing happens if you are not proactive and ask questions. The work should as far as possible resemble a real situation. To pass the seminar task, you should conduct this virtual meeting. The task will not be graded or assessed in any other way than to you as an individual. This feedback is given automatically by the system after the completion of the case, where you can compare your solution with an expert's opinion."
The students were also told that the work on the case would take about 1 hour and that is was divided into three parts: Part one where they should investigate what had happened in the case; part two where they should describe relevant legal rules and consequences for the case; and part three, where they would receive feedback on their work.

2.6 Evaluation instruments

To investigate the student opinions, it was decided to apply a questionnaire to the users in terms of getting information on users' backgrounds, previous experience with virtual cases, their opinion on the usage of VCs in the course and their attitudes on VCs as a learning tool. The questionnaire was constructed with 20 questions of Likert type with six options ranging from 1 (does not agree at all) to 6 (totally agree), plus two open ended questions with free text replies.

Refer to Appendix A for the questionnaire.

2.7 Ethical aspects

All students participated in this study as a part of an ordinary educational activity at Linköping University. The regulations at the university includes a possibility of teachers to implement new teaching aids and methods, including technology enhanced learning activities without prior permit from central authorities at the university.

All students that run the virtual case were informed about that this was a test with a new teaching aid and that their grades on the courses would not be affected by their results on this task. All students participated on a voluntarily bases. All information gathered was anonymous and no personal information was collected.

3. Results

All 52 learners volunteered to use the system and could access and use the virtual cases, although some minor technical issues appeared due to problems connecting to the server and/or that some students had missed how to get their log-in passwords. None of the students had used computerized cases in law before this course and only six of them had used some type of virtual cases to study other subjects before. The students also indicated that they had received enough legal information in the course to be able to work with and solve the cases. They were also in general satisfied by the instructions and information they had received before starting to use the cases (median 3 on the 6-graded scale) and believed that they had got enough time to solve the cases (median 5 on the 6-graded scale).

Almost all students believed that the cases were very realistic (medical 6 on the 6-graded scale) and that the virtual cases was a very good way to train to estimate which laws that were applicable in the actual juridical domain of the course (median 5 on the 6-graded scale).

The students also believed that this was a very good way to train to understand the juridical issues of Agreements within the actual legal domain (median 5) and that this also was a good way to practice the management of this type of juridical issues (median 5).

Other positive findings were that most of the students wanted more virtual cases like these in their future studies (median 4) and that they wanted to use similar learning tools also in other courses (median 4). The overall opinion of using Web-SP for this course was also positive (median 4).

Finally, most of the students did not think that virtual cases could be a good way to assess their knowledge in an exam (median 2 on the 6-graded scale).

Please refer to Table 1 for detailed results.

[Please insert Table 1 about here]

Table 1, results and median values of all questions of the questionnaire; n=52. Note that the median values range from 1 to 6, where 1 is "do not agree at all" and 6 is "completely agree"

Question

Median

Notes

1 - used virtual cases in law before

N/A

None had used virtual cases before for studying law

2 - used any virtual cases before

N/A

Only 6 had used other virtual cases for other purposes

3 - enough knowledge to solve the cases

5

4 - enough information re. legal regulations

4

5 - enough information re. legal consequences

4

6 - realistic case

6

7 - needed more help

3

8 - good way to learn which laws are applicable

5

9 - good way to understand construction law

5

10 - good way to practice legal management

5

11 - good way to evaluate legal decision making

4

12 - enough challenging case

5

13 - more cases would be good

5

14 - enough feedback in the case

4

15 - Web-SP was easy to use

4

16 - virtual cases should be used in other courses

4

17 - virtual cases should be used for assessment

2

18 - there were enough number of cases

3

19 - time allocated was enough

5

20 - what was the best with Web-SP?

Free text answers

21 - what was the worst with Web-SP?

Free text answers

22 - overall opinion of Web-SP

4

Many students also gave free text answers on the last questions regarding what they thought were the best things and the worst things with using Web-SP cases for learning. Among the answers for the best things can these typical answers be found:

  • "It was good because I could myself find relevant information"
  • "Realistic cases, rather funny, somewhat different [from traditional teaching] and learning"
  • "It was realistic"
  • "It felt more realistic than paper cases"

Regarding the last statement, many students reported the degree of realism as an especially good feature of the virtual cases.

When it comes to examples of negative comments, the following are representative of the group:

  • "The feedback from the system could have been better"
  • "It was not possible to run the cases on Google Chrome [as a browser]"
  • "It was difficult to find where the different questions and other information was in the system"

A number of users commented that they had problems running the cases on Macintoshes and/or from Safari or Chrome browsers. A limited number of users mentioned that they also had found some bugs in the system (but it is impossible to understand if they meant in the Case system Web-SP itself, or in the actual law cases).

4. Discussion

This paper describes a pilot study of using interactive virtual cases for law education. 52 students volunteered to use the virtual case and all of them found the system easy to use. Almost all students experienced the virtual case realistic and that they appreciated to train with the case system. This is interesting, since very few of these learners had ever used virtual cases before, and none for studying law. The overall opinion of using the virtual cases was also positive, which supports our belief that virtual cases seem to be of value in law education.

Like in earlier healthcare and teacher training virtual cases, this legal case forced the learners to reflect on what they were doing and not just click on everything available. This is due to the fact that even if the learners could choose any (or most of) of the hundreds of available questions to ask, documents and facts to order etc., they also were aware of the fact that any unnecessary actions taken would be highlighted in the feedback. Therefore, similar to what has been found from research on healthcare virtual patient cases [Botezatu et al 2010a + b + c; Cook & Triola 2009], the learners in this study were also fostered in critical thinking and reflection on their actions. The positive answers on questions 8 - 11 support our view that the learners believed that this process was good for their learning.

The students were especially positive to the realism of the virtual law cases, which often is seen as a prerequisite for learning using virtual cases [Botezatu et al 2010c]. Even if the students were unused to work with virtual cases for learning, they specifically pointed out that they believed that this was a good way to practice both management of juridical issues and to improve their understanding of juridical issues in agreements. This is interpreted as if virtual cases could be a good bridge between the often theoretical law studies and real legal practice.

However, even if there was a majority of positive answers from the learners regarding possible learning effects (median 5 on the 6-graded scale), we did not measure the real learning outcomes per se and thus have no evidence of that learning really occurred. But since similar virtual cases have been used within healthcare education for long with good learning results [se for example Botezatu et al 2010 a + b], we believe that the law students actually learned from using the virtual legal case in this study.

Further on, since motivation and engagement are key factors in learning [Goleman 1995], and due to the fact that the students in this study indicated that they found the case realistic, and that they reported that they wanted to use similar cases also in the future, we interpret these results as favoring virtual cases also for law education. Moreover, since virtual cases in other domains are found to foster critical thinking and reasoning [Cook and Triola 2009], we see a possibility that virtual cases in the law area might be good for preparing law students for engaging in real world cases.

Further on, since developing and editing virtual law cases are substantially easier and faster that for example creating human-actor based role-playing [Boyne 2012], virtual law cases might be implemented more straightforward than more complex learning models. Electronic learning aids also have the advantage of being available for the learner at any time and any place. An interesting question is thus the effort needed to develop virtual law cases, meaning if the case creation procedure is too complex, it might not be possible to apply them on a broader scale. However, according to our experience from this study, the most time-consuming process was the conversion of the case system from one discipline into another, not the case creation itself. In the healthcare version of Web-SP, creation of a case takes between 2-8 hours, and the same time is believed to be required once the system has been fully adapted for the law domain.

Additionally, one may ask what the main educational advantages would be of a fully interactive virtual law case like this, compared to paper-based cases etc. We do not know this, since we have not compared the outcomes with paper based cases in this study. However, based on results from many studies in the healthcare and teacher training domains, both motivation and learning outcomes might be better when using virtual cases than traditional paper cases [Allodi et al 2012; Botezatu et al 2010a + b + c].

An interesting finding in this study was that these students, in controversy to e.g. nursing students [Forsberg et al 2011], indicated that they would not like to use virtual cases for assessment in exams. This might be due to the fact that these students had never used this type of interactive cases before and that some of them actually did get (although minor) technical problems the first time they should use the virtual case system. Other reasons might be that students of law might be more prone to worry about confidentiality and security issues than others? Therefore, we believe that this needs to be studied further before saying that virtual cases cannot be used for exams in the law field.

Finally, virtual cases might enhance collaborative learning, which in its turn might enhance motivation and learning further [Bergin et al 2003, Bainbridge et al 2013].

5. Conclusions

Most students seem to like to practice with interactive virtual law cases. Almost all learners believed that the virtual cases were realistic and engaging and that they also believed that Web-SP cases could be good for their learning.

Future studies need to look into concrete learning outcomes as well as the potential of using virtual cases for exams.

References

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Allodi, MW, Linikko J & Fors U (2012): Simulation of establishing an individual education plan for a virtual pupil. EAPRIL conference, Jyväskylä, Finland, November 2012

Vogel H-H (2000): Sources of Swedish Law. In Michael Bodgan (Editor), Swedish Law in the New Millennium , page 48. Norstedts juridik, Stockholm. ISBN 91-39-00628-X

Bainbridge, J, Counsell, K, Grealy, F., Maharg, P., Mills, J., O'Boyle, R. (2013): iPads in Legal Learning (iLEGALL): mobile devices in professional legal learning. European Journal of Law and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1

Bergin, R., Youngblood, Y., Ayers, M., Boberg, J., Bolander, K., Courteille, O., Dev, P., Hindbeck, H., Stringer, J., Thalme, A. and Fors, UGH.(2003): Interactive Simulated Patient - Experiences with Collaborative e-Learning in Medicine. Journal of Educational Computing Research 29(3), 387-400.

Botezatu M, Hult H, Kassaye Tessma M & Fors U (2010a): Virtual Patient Simulation systems: knowledge gain or knowledge loss? Medical Teacher, 32:7, 562-568

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Botezatu M, Hult H and Uno G Fors (2010c): Virtual patient simulation: what do students make of it? A focus group study. BMC Medical Education 2010, 10:91

Boyne, S M (2012): Crisis in the Classroom: Using Simulations to Enhance Decision-Making Skills. Journal of Legal Education, Volume 62, Number 2 (November 2012), 311-322

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Denoncourt, J (2013): Using Film to Enhance Intellectual Property Law Education: Getting the Message Across, European Journal of Law and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1

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Appendix A - Questionnaire to the students (translated from Swedish)

Evaluation of using virtual law cases in Web-SP

The purpose of this evaluation is to collect information to be able to develop the use of virtual cases within law education. The material that is gathered will be anonymous and confidential. The participation in the study is voluntarily. The material will be used for research purposes only.

About the cases

1. Have you at any time previously used computer based cases to study law or for assess your ability to solve legal problems?
Yes No

2. Have you ever used any type of computer based cases to study anything else than law?
yes No

3. I believe that the law education I have received during the course gave me enough knowledge and skills to solve the cases.
................................................................................Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

4. I believe that these cases contained enough information to be able to suggest which legal regulations that were applicable in this case.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

5. I believe that these cases contained enough information to be able to suggest which legal consequences that were connected to the case.

................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

6. I felt that this was a realistic legal case.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

7. I had appreciated more help to learn how to use the computer system.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

8. To use computer based cases like this is a good way to practice to learn which laws that are applicable within this field.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

9. To use computer based cases like this is a good way to practice to understand what different types of statements/agreements/contracts may mean within the construction law domain.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

10. To use computer based cases like this is a good way to practice legal management.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

11. To use computer based cases like this is a good way to evaluate a student's ability to make legal decisions.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

12. I believe that the web-based case was enough challenging.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

13. I believe that it should have been more cases available.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

14. I believe that the feedback in the cases was enough for me.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

About the computer system (Web-SP)

15. I believe that it was easy to use Web-SP.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

16. I believe that Web-SP cases could be used in other courses in my education.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

17. I believe that Web-SP cases should be used for assessment.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

18. I believe that it was enough with cases to learn what I should
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

19. I believe that the time allocated to run the cases was enough.
................................................................................ Do not agree at all = 1 6 =totally agree

20. What do you think was the absolutely best with Web-SP?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

21. What do you think was the absolutely worst with Web-SP?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

22. My overall judgment of Web-SP is

.......................................................................................................... Very bad= 1 6 =very good

 

Thanks for your participation!


[1] Stockholm University, Sweden.

[2] Stockholm University, Sweden.

[3] Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Pilea AB and the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth. The Web-SP system is developed by Uno Fors at Stockholm University.